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Aachen - In French, Aix-la-Chapelle, the name by which the city is generally known; in Latin Aquae Grani, later Aquisgranum Aaron - Brother of Moses, and High Priest of the Old Law Abaddon - A Hebrew word signifying: ruin, destruction (Job 31:12); place of destruction; the Abyss, realm of the dead (Job 26:6; Proverbs 15:11) Abandonment - A term used by writers of ascetical and mystical books to signify the first stage of the union of the soul with God by conforming to His Will Abba - Aramaic word for father Abbess - The female superior in spirituals and temporals of a community of twelve or more nuns Abbey - A monastery canonically erected and autonomous, with a community of not fewer than twelve religious; monks under the government of an abbot; nuns under that of an abbess Abbot - A title given to the superior of a community of twelve or more monks Abbreviation, Methods of - Discusses forms used to get the most use from scarce and costly materials Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical - Latin abbreviations commonly seen in documents of the Catholic Church, the full Latin words or phrases, and their English meaning Abdias - A minor prophet Abduction - May be considered as a public crime and a matrimonial diriment impediment Abel - Commentary on the first murder victim Abelard, Peter - Dialectician, philosopher, and theologian (1079-1142) Abgar, The Legend of - Concerns a correspondence that took place between God and the local potentate at Edessa Abiogenesis and Biogenesis - According to their Greek derivation these two terms refer to the origin of life Abomination of Desolation, The - Spoken of in St. Matthew, xxiv, 15, and St. Mark, xiii, 14 Abortion - Briefly defined as 'the loss of a fetal life.' Abortion, Physical Effects of - Covers definition, causes, and physical effects Abraham - Outline of his life, with New and Old Testament views Abraham, The Bosom of - Found only in two verses of St. Luke's Gospel (xvi, 22, 23) Absalom - Article covers Absalom, son of David; Absalom, father of Mathathias; and Absalom, father of Jonathan Absolution - The remission of sin, or of the punishment due to sin, granted by the Church Abstinence - Includes information about old and new testament fasting as well as church laws Abyss - Primarily and classically an adjective, very deep Abyssinia - Provides details on the geography, ethnology, political revolutions, as well as church information Acacius - Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 489) Academy, The French - Founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635 Accident - The obvious division of things into the stable and the unstable Accomplice - A term generally employed to designate a partner in some form of evildoing Achilleus and Nereus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints - Roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 May Acolyte - A cleric promoted to the fourth and highest minor order in the Latin Church, ranking next to a subdeacon Acta Pilati - The Gospel of Nicodemus Acta Sanctæ Sedis - A publication containing the principal public documents issued by the Pope, directly or through the Roman Congregations Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Baron Acton - Biography of the historian best-known for his view of the corruption power causes Acts, Human - St. Thomas and the scholastics in general regard only the free and deliberate acts of the will as human Acts, Indifferent - An act that is neither good nor bad Acts of the Apostles - The fifth book of the New Testament Acts of the Martyrs - Records of the trials of early Christian martyrs made by the notaries of the court Actual Grace - A grace that is given for the performance of salutary acts and is present and disappears with the action itself Ad Limina Visit - The obligation incumbent on certain members of the hierarchy of visiting, the 'thresholds of the Apostles', Sts. Peter and Paul, and of presenting themselves before the pope to give an account of the state of their dioceses Adalbert, Saint - Apostle of the Slavs. Monk, missionary to Russia, abbot, and bishop of Magdeburg, d. 981 Adam - First man and father of the human race Addeus and Maris, Liturgy of - Oriental liturgy, sometimes assigned to the Syrian group; sometimes to the Persian group Addresses, Ecclesiastical - Rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence Adelaide, Saint - Or Adelheid. The widow of Otho, she died in 999 Adeodatus I, Pope Saint - Also known as Pope Adeodatus I, d. 618 Adeodatus - Son of St. Augustine (372-388) Adeodatus (II), Pope Saint - Brief article on this Roman monk, opponent of Monothelitism, d. 676. Called Adeodatus II to distinguish him from his predecessor St. Deusdedit, who is also called Adeodatus Adjuration - An urgent demand made upon another to do something, or to desist from doing something, which is rendered more solemn by coupling with it the name of God Adonai - Hebrew meaning 'lord, ruler', a name bestowed upon God in the Old Testament Adoption - Adoption, as defined in canon law, is foreign to the Bible Adoption, Supernatural - The adoption of man by God in virtue of which we become His sons and heirs Adoptionism - The theory that the man Jesus at some point in time became the Son of God only by adoption. Strictly speaking, refers to an eighth-century Spanish heresy, but the term is also used to cover similar beliefs Adoration - In the strict sense, an act of religion offered to God in acknowledgment of His supreme perfection and dominion, and of the creature's dependence upon Him Adoration, Perpetual - A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed Sacrament Adoro Te Devote - A hymn sometimes styled Rhythmus, or Oratio, S. Thomae (sc. Aquinatis) written c. 1260 Adrian I, Pope - Reigned 772-95 Adrian II, Pope - Reigned 867-872 Adrian III, Pope Saint - Short article on this pope, a Roman, who died in 885 Adrian IV, Pope - Reigned 1154-1159 Adrian V, Pope - A Genoese, and nephew of Innocent IV. He was elected at Viterbo 12 July 1276, but died 18 August Adrian VI, Pope - Reigned 1522-1523 Adrian of Canterbury, Saint - African-born Benedictine abbot, d. 710 Adulteration of Food - This act is defined as the addition of any non-condimental substance to a food Adultery - The article considers adultery with reference only to morality Advent - According to 1907 usage, a period beginning with the Sunday nearest to the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle and embracing four Sundays Adventists - A group of six American Protestant sects which hold in common a belief in the near return of Christ in person Advocatus Diaboli - A title given to an officer of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, established in 1587, by Sixtus V, to deal juridically with processes of beatification and canonization Advowson - In English law the right of patronage of a church or ecclesiastical benefice, a right exercised by nomination of a clergyman to such church or other benefice Adytum - A secret chamber or place of retirement in the ancient temples, and esteemed the most sacred spot; the innermost sanctuary or shrine Aelfred the Great - King of the West Saxons (849-899) Aelred, Saint - Cistercian abbot, homilist, spiritual writer, d. 1166 or 1167 Aeons - The term appropriated by Gnostic heresiarchs to designate the series of spiritual powers evolved by progressive emanation from the eternal Being Æsthetics - May be defined as a systematic training to right thinking and right feeling in matters of art, and is made a part of philosophy by A.G. Baumgarten Affinity (in the Bible) - Scripture recognizes affinity as an impediment to wedlock Affinity (in Canon Law) - A relationship arising from the carnal intercourse of a man and a woman, sufficient for the generation of children, whereby the man becomes related to the woman's blood-relatives and the woman to the man's Africa - This name, which is of Phoenician origin, was at first given by the Romans to the territory about the city of Carthage African Liturgy - In use not only in the old Roman province of Africa of which Carthage was the capital, but also in Numidia and Mauretania African Synods - Commonly called African or Carthaginian Synods Agabus - Mentioned in Acts 11:28, and 21:10, as a prophet of the New Testament Agape - Under certain circumstances the agape and the Eucharist appear to form parts of a single liturgical function Agapetus I, Pope Saint - Anti-Arian, instrumental in deposing a Monophysite bishop who had moreover abandoned his see, d. 536 Agapetus II, Pope - Reigned 946-955 Agatha, Saint - Virgin and martyr, died at Catania in Sicily, probably in the Decian persecution (250-253) Agatho, Pope Saint - Short article on St. Agatho the Wonderworker, a Sicilian believed to have been over 100 years old at the time of his election. He died in 681 Age, Canonical - Fixed by the canons, or law of the Church, at which her subjects become capable of incurring certain obligations, enjoying special privileges, embracing special states of life, holding office or dignity, or receiving the sacraments Age of Reason - The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally responsible Agnes of Assisi, Saint - Brief biography of the younger sister of St. Clare, and prioress of the Poor Clares at Monticelli Agnes of Bohemia, Blessed - Also called Agnes of Prague. Poor Clare, prioress Agnes of Prague, Blessed - Also called Agnes of Prague. Poor Clare, prioress Agnes of Rome, Saint and Martyr - Virgin, martyred at the age of 12 or 13, revered since at least the mid-fourth century Agnosticism - A philosophical theory of the limitations of knowledge, professing doubt of or disbelief in some or all of the powers of knowing possessed by the human mind Agnus Dei - The name given to certain discs of wax impressed with the figure of a lamb and blessed at stated seasons by the Pope Agnus Dei (in Liturgy) - A name given to the formula recited thrice by the priest at Mass in the Roman rite Agony of Christ - The word is used only once in Sacred Scripture (Luke 22:43) to designate the anguish of Our Lord in the Garden of Gethsemani Agrapha - Term for alleged sayings of Jesus, found in ancient Christian writings, not included in the canonical Gospels Agreda, Maria de - Franciscan mystic (1602-1665) Agrippa of Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius - Described as a 'knight, doctor, and by common reputation, a magician' Aidan of Lindisfarne, Saint - Irish monk, first bishop of Lindisfarne, d. 651 Aisle - In architecture, one of the lateral or longitudinal divisions of a church, separated from the nave by rows of piers, pillars, or columns Alanus de Rupe - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475) Alb - A white linen vestment with close fitting sleeves, reaching nearly to the ground and secured round the waist by a girdle Alban, Saint - First martyr of Britain, d. about 304. Biographical article Albania - The ancient Epirus and Illyria, is the most western land occupied by the Turks in Europe Albert the Great, Saint - Called 'the Universal Doctor.' Dominican scientist, philosopher, theologian, instructor of St. Thomas Aquinas Alberta and Saskatchewan - The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day Albigenses - A neo-Manichaean sect that flourished in southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Alchemy - The art of transmuting baser metals into gold and silver Alcoholism - The term is understood to include all the changes that may occur in the human organism after the ingestion of any form of alcohol Alcuin - Lengthy article on the educator, scholar, theologian, liturgist, who died in 804 Alexander I, Pope Saint - Article on this pope, who died in 115 or 116. According to a tradition dating to the fifth century, Alexander was martyred, but it is possible that he has been confused with another St. Alexander who was indeed a martyr Alexander II, Pope - Reigned 1061-1073 Alexander III, Pope - Reigned from 1159-81 Alexander IV, Pope - Reigned 1254-61 Alexander V - Pietro Philarghi, born c. 1339, on the island of Crete (Candia), whence his appellation, Peter of Candia; elected 26 June, 1409; died at Bologna, 3 May, 1410 Alexander VI, Pope - Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 August, 1503 Alexander VII, Pope - Biographical article on this seventeenth-century pontiff Alexander VIII, Pope - Pietro Ottoboni, born at Venice, April, 1610; elected 5 October, 1689; died at Rome, 1 February, 1691 Alexander, Saint (Bishop of Comana) - Called 'The Charcoal Burner.' Made bishop of Comana at the recommendation of St. Gregory Thaumaturgus. St. Alexander was martyred in the Decian persecution Alexander, Saint (Patriarch of Alexandria) - Patriarch of Alexandria. Elected instead of the heresiarch Arius, who had been scheming to be made bishop. A man of great holiness, St. Alexander died in 326 Alexander of Hales - Biographical article on the first of the scholastic theologians to use Aristotelean principles in systematic theology Alexandria - Seaport of Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile Alexandria, The Church of - Founded by St. Mark the Evangelist, the center from which Christianity spread throughout all Egypt, the nucleus of the powerful Patriarchate of Alexandria Alexandrian Library, The - The Great Library of Alexandria, so called to distinguish it from the smaller or 'daughter' library in the Serapeum, was a foundation of the first Ptolemies for the purpose of aiding the maintenance of Greek civilization in the midst of the conservative Egyptians Alexandrinus, Codex - Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see Alexius, Saint - Tries to untangle the story of the Man of God. According to tradition, a fifth-century Roman who became a beggar in Edessa. He is honored as a confessor of the Faith Alfred the Great - King of the West Saxons (849-899) Algonquins - The Micmacs, Abenakis, Montagnais, Penobscots, Chippewas, Mascoutens, Nipissings, Sacs, Pottowatomies, and Illinois, the Pequods of Massachusetts, the Mohegans of New York, the Lenapes of Pennsylvania and Delaware, with many other minor tribes, may be classed among them Alighieri, Dante - An annotated (in linked hypertext) biography of the poet Alimentation - In a broad sense, whatever is necessary to sustain human life: not merely food and drink, but lodging, clothing, care during sickness and burial Alimony - In the common legal sense of the word, the allowance by order of the court a husband pays to his wife for her maintenance while she is living separately from him, or paid by her former husband to a divorced woman All Saints' Day - Celebrated on the first of November. Instituted to honour all the saints, known and unknown, and, according to Urban IV, to supply any deficiencies in the faithful's celebration of saints' feasts during the year All Souls' Day - The commemoration of all the faithful departed is celebrated by the Church on 2 November, or, if this be a Sunday or a solemnity, on 3 November Allah - The name of God in Arabic Alleluia - A liturgical mystic expression Allen, Frances - The first woman of New England birth to become a nun (1784-1819) Allen, John - Archbishop of Dublin, canonist, and Chancellor of Ireland (1476-1534) Allen, John - Priest and martyr. He was executed at Tyburn in the beginning of the year 1538 Alma - A Hebrew word signifying a 'young woman', unmarried as well as married Alms and Almsgiving - Any material favour done to assist the needy, and prompted by charity Aloysius Gonzaga, Saint - Short biography of this Jesuit student, who died in 1591 at the age of 23 Alpha and Omega (in Scripture) - Employed from the fourth century as a symbol expressing the confidence of orthodox Christians in the scriptural proofs of Our Lord's divinity Alpha and Omega - Includes Jewish and Christian meanings Alphabet, Christian Use of the - The Hebrew, Greek and Latin alphabets have been variously made use of in Christian liturgy Alphonsus Liguori, Saint - Long biographical article on the founder of the Redemptorists and devotional writer Alphonsus Rodriguez, Saint - Spanish-born widower, Jesuit lay brother, served as porter at Majorca for 46 years, d. 1617. Also known as Alonso Alsace-Lorraine - The German Imperial Territory so known, and divided for State purposes into three civil districts Altar Breads - Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist Altar Candles - For mystical reasons the Church prescribes that the candles used at Mass and at other liturgical functions be made of beeswax Altar Candlesticks - Consists of five parts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the stem, the bowl to receive the drippings of wax, and the pricket, i.e. the sharp point that terminates the stem on which the candle is fixed Altar Cloths - The custom of using three altar-cloths began probably in the ninth century, but at present it is of strict obligation for the licit celebration of Mass Altar Crucifix - The principal ornament of the altar Altar Frontal - An appendage which covers the entire front of the altar, from the lower part of the table to the predella, and from the gospel corner to that of the epistle side Altar, High - The chief altar in a church, raised on an elevated plane in the sanctuary, where it may be seen simultaneously by all the faithful in the body of the church Altar Horns - On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns of the altar. These projections are not found on the Christian altar, but the word cornu ('horn') is still maintained to designate the sides or corners of the altar Altar Lamp - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil Altar Linens - The corporal, pall, purificator, and finger towels Altar (in Liturgy) - In the New Law the altar is the table on which the Eucharistic Sacrifice is offered Altar Rail - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail Altar Vessels - The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained Altar Wine - Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid and licit consecration vinum de vite, i.e. the pure juice of the grape naturally and properly fermented, is to be used Altars (in Scripture) - Describes several biblical uses of the word Altar, History of the Christian - An elevated surface, tabular in form, on which the Sacrifice of the Mass is offered Altruism - A term formed by Auguste Comte in 1851, to denote the benevolent, as contrasted with the selfish propensities Alumnus - Signifies in ecclesiastical usage, a student preparing for the sacred ministry in a seminary Alvarado, Pedro de - Accompanied Grijalva on his exploration of Yucatan and the Mexican coast in 1518, and was the chief officer of Cortez during the conquest of Mexico Alypius, Saint - Close friend of St. Augustine of Hippo. Like Augustine, Alypius was baptized by Ambrose. St. Alypius became bishop of Tagaste Amalec - A people remembered chiefly as the most hated of all the enemies of Israel Ambition - The undue craving for honor Ambo - A word of Greek origin, supposed to signify a mountain or elevation Ambrosian Basilica - Erected at Milan by fourth-century bishop, St. Ambrose, and was consecrated in the year 386 Ambrose, Saint - Article on the life and teachings of this Bishop of Milan, and Doctor of the Church, who died in 397 Ambrosian Chant - Chant composed by St. Ambrose Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite - The liturgy and Rite of the Church of Milan, which derives its name from St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (374-397) Ambulatory - A cloister, gallery, or alley; a sheltered place, straight or circular, for exercise in walking; the aisle that makes the circuit of the apse of a church Amen - One of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into the liturgy of the Church America - Consists of three main divisions: North America, Central America, and South America America, Pre-Columbian Discovery of - Offers details of early exploration Amerigo Vespucci - Biographical article on the Italian navigator (1451-1512) Amice - A short linen cloth, square or oblong in shape and, like the other sacerdotal vestments, needing to be blessed before use Ammonites - A race closely allied to the Hebrews Amorrhites - A name of doubtful origin and meaning, used to designate an ancient people often mentioned in the Old Testament Amos - Old Testament prophet Ampè, André-Marie - Physicist and mathematician (1775-1836) Amphilochius of Iconium - Fourth-century Cappadocian bishop Amphoræ - Vessels generally made of clay, and furnished with ears or handles Ampullæ - Their peculiarity consists in the sediment of dark red colour they contain, from which they derive the name, blood-ampullae, on the theory that the sediment is the remains of the blood of a martyr Amsterdam - The capital, and second residential city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Amulet - An object generally inscribed with mysterious formulae and used by pagans as a protection against various maladies, as well as witchcraft Anabaptists - A violent and extremely radical body of ecclesiastico-civil reformers which first made its appearance in 1521 at Zwickau Anacletus, Pope Saint - Third pope, a martyr, d. about 91. May be the same person as Pope St. Cletus Anacletus II - The title which was taken by Cardinal Pietro Pierleone at the contested papal election of the year 1130 Anæsthesia - A term in medicine, and the allied sciences, signifying a state of insensibility to external impressions, consequent upon disease, or induced artificially by the employment of certain substances known as anaesthetics, or by hypnotic suggestion Analogy - A philosophical term used to designate, first, a property of things; secondly, a process of reasoning Analysis - The process by which anything complex is resolved into simple, or at least less complex parts or elements Anaphora - A liturgical term in the Greek Rite Anarchy - An absence of law Anastasia, Saint - Article on this martyr, whose feast day is 25 December. Attracted a cultus at Rome in the late fifth century, and a sixth-century legend makes her a Roman matron, though martyred elsewhere Anastasius I, Pope Saint - Article on the pope remembered chiefly for condemning Origenism, d. 401 Anastasius II, Pope - Reigned 496-498 Anastasius III, Pope - Reigned 911-913 Anastasius IV, Pope - Reigned 1153-1154 Anastasius, Saint - A former magician and soldier, converted to Christianity, became a monk. He was martyred in 628 Anathema - Placed on high, suspended, set aside Anatomy - The science of the form and structure of living beings Anchor (as Symbol), The - Regarded in ancient times as a symbol of safety Anchorites - In Christian terminology, men who have sought to triumph over the two unavoidable enemies of human salvation, the flesh and the devil, by depriving them of the assistance of their ally, the world Ancient of Days - A name given to God by the Prophet Daniel Andreas, Saint - Also known as Andreas, monk, bishop of Gortyna, best known for his hymnody, d. 740 or 720 Andrew, Saint (Apostle and Martyr) - The Apostle in Scripture and tradition Andrew Bobola, Saint - Polish Jesuit priest and missionary, martyred in 1657 Andrew Corsini, Saint - Article on this Carmelite, called 'the Apostle of Florence,' regarded as a prophet and thaumaturgus, who became bishop of Fiesole, and died in 1373 Andrew of Crete, Saint - Also known as Andreas, monk, bishop of Gortyna, best known for his hymnody, d. 740 or 720 Andrew the Scot, Saint - Brother of St. Bridget the Younger and archdeacon of Fiesole, d. about 877 Angel - The word is used in Hebrew to denote indifferently either a divine or human messenger Angel, Guardian - The lowest orders of angels are sent to men Angela Merici, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Ursulines, who died in 1540 Angela of Foligno, Blessed - Short biography of the penitent, mystic, writer, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1309 Angelico, Fra - Biography of this Dominican, a famous painter, who died in 1455 Angels, Early Christian Representations of - The oldest fresco in which an angel appears is the Annunciation scene (second century) of the cemetery of St. Priscilla Angels of the Churches - St. John in the Apocalypse is shown seven candlesticks and in their midst, the Son of Man holding seven stars. The candlesticks represent the seven Churches of Asia; the stars, the angels of those Churches Angelus - A short practice of devotion in honour of the Incarnation repeated three times each day, morning, noon, and evening, at the sound of the bell Angelus Bell - The triple Hail Mary recited in the evening, which is the origin of our modern Angelus, was closely associated with the ringing of a bell Anger - The desire of vengeance Anglican Orders - In the creed of the Catholic Church, Holy Order is one of the Seven Sacraments instituted by Our Lord Jesus Christ Anglicanism - A term used to denote the religious belief and position of members of the established Church of England Anglo-Saxon Church, The - History of the occupation, conversion, and development Anicetus, Pope Saint - Biography of this martyr, a contemporary of St. Polycarp and of the heretic Marcion Anima Christi - Well known prayer dating from the first half of the fourteenth century and enriched with indulgences by Pope John XXII in the year 1330 Animals in Christian Art - Animal forms have always occupied a place of far greater importance than was ever accorded to them in the art of the pagan world Animals in the Bible - The sacred books were composed by and for a people almost exclusively given to husbandry and pastoral life, hence in constant communication with nature Animals, Cruelty to - Includes sections on pagan, Old and New Testament, scholastic, and Catholic perspectives Animism - The doctrine or theory of the soul Anna - Details of four women by this name in Sacred Scripture Anna Comnena - Byzantine historian, eldest daughter of Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople (1081-1118) Anne, Saint - According to apocryphal literature, the mother of Mary Anne d'Auray, Sainte - A little village three miles from the town of Auray, in the Diocese of Vannes, famous for its sanctuary and for its pilgrimages, or pardons, in honour of St. Anne Anne de Beaupré, Sainte - Devotion to Saint Anne, in Canada Anne Line, Saint - A convert to Catholicism, hanged in 1601 for the (unproven) crime of harboring a priest. She is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Fact of the - In the sixth month after the conception of St. John the Baptist by Elizabeth, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to the Virgin Mary Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Feast of the - In the Latin Church this feast is first mentioned in the Sacramentarium of Pope Gelasius Anointing of the Sick - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill Anselm, Saint - Long biographical article on St. Anselm, monk, abbot, philosopher, theologian, Archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church Antediluvians - People who lived before the flood Anterus, Pope Saint - Also known as Anteros, pope for less than 2 months, d. in 236. Short biographical article Anthony of the Desert, Saint - Article on the founder of Christian monasticism Anthony of Padua, Saint - Long article on the Augustinian canon turned Franciscan, priest, preacher, miracle worker, d. 1231. Known as 'the Hammer of the Heretics.' Anthropomorphism, Anthropomorphites - A term used in its widest sense to signify the tendency of man to conceive the activities of the external world as the counterpart of his own Antichrist - Defines the word according to its biblical and ecclesiastical usage Antinomianism - The heretical doctrine that Christians are exempt from the obligations of moral law Antioch - Provides information on two places by this name Antioch, The Church of - A city on the banks of the lower Orontes Antiphon - One or more psalm verses or sentences from Holy Scripture which are sung or recited before and after each psalm and the Magnificat during Matins and Vespers Antiphon, Communion - The term Communion is used, not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, but also as a shortened form for the antiphon that was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament Antiphonary - One of the present liturgical books intended for use in the liturgical choir, and originally characterized, by the assignment to it principally of the antiphons used in various parts of the Roman liturgy Antipodes - Speculations concerning the rotundity of the earth and the possible existence of human beings 'with their feet turned towards ours' were of interest to the Fathers of the Early Church only in so far as they seemed to encroach upon the fundamental Christian dogma of the unity of the human race, and the consequent universality of original sin and redemption Antipope - A false claimant of the Holy See in opposition to a pontiff canonically elected Antiquities, Biblical - Details domestic, political, and sacred antiquities Antoninus Pius - Roman Emperor (138-161) Antonio Maria Zaccaria, Saint - A Doctor of Medicine, founder of the Barnabites, d. 1539 Antwerp - A city of Belgium, in the archdiocese of Mechlin Apaches - A tribe of North American Indians belonging linguistically to the Athapascan stock whose original habitat is believed to have been Northwestern Canada Apocalypse, Book of - The name given to the last book in the Bible, also called the Book of Revelation Apocatastasis - A name given in the history of theology to the doctrine which teaches that a time will come when all free creatures will share in the grace of salvation; in a special way, the devils and lost souls Apocrypha - A long article with a comments on each Apocryphal book. Classified according to origin Apollinarianism - Fourth-century Christological heresy propounded by Apollinaris of Laodicea. The theory that Jesus had a human body and soul, but that the Logos took the place of the human spirit or mind in Jesus. Solemnly condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 381 Apollonia, Saint - A virgin, possibly ordained, martyr at Alexandria in late 248 or early 249 Apologetics - A theological science which has for its purpose the explanation and defence of the Christian religion Apostasy - The word itself in its etymological sense, signifies the desertion of a post, the giving up of a state of life; he who voluntarily embraces a definite state of life cannot leave it, therefore, without becoming an apostate Apostle Spoons - A set of thirteen spoons, usually silver, the handles of which are adorned with representations of Our Lord (the Master spoon) and the twelve Apostles Apostles, The - Apostolos (Apostle) means one who is sent forth, who is entrusted with a mission Apostles, Acts of the - The fifth book of the New Testament Apostles' Creed - A formula containing in brief statements, or 'articles,' the fundamental tenets of Christian belief, and having for its authors, according to tradition, the Twelve Apostles Apostles, Portraits of the - The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of the fourth century. . . Apostles of Erin, The Twelve - Twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the School of Clonard in Meath Apostleship of Prayer, The - A pious association otherwise known as a league of prayer in union with the Heart of Jesus Apostolic Blessing - The popes very often delegated to others the power to give this blessing in answer to petitions from princes, at the close of missions, and on such occasions Apostolic Camera - The former central board of finance in the papal administrative system, which at one time was of great importance in the government of the States of the Church, and in the administration of justice Apostolic Churches - All the individual orthodox churches could, in a sense, be called Apostolic Churches, because they were in some more or less mediate connection with the Apostles Apostolic Constitutions - A fourth-century pseudo-Apostolic collection, in eight books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity Apostolic Fathers, The - Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had personal relations with some of the Apostles, or to have been so influenced by them that their writings may be held as echoes of genuine Apostolic teaching Apostolic Letters - The letters of the Apostles to Christian communities or those in authority Apostolic See, The - A metaphorical term, used, as happens in all languages, to express the abstract notion of authority by the concrete name of the place in which it is exercised Apostolic Succession - Article claims that Apostolic succession is found in the Catholic Church and not in others Apostolicity - The mark by which the Church of today is recognized as identical with the Church founded by Jesus Christ upon the Apostles Apotheosis - Deification, the exaltation of men to the rank of gods Apparitions - The article deals not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to the direct intervention of a power superior to man Appeals - The purpose of this article is to give a comprehensive view of the positive legislation of the Church on appeals belonging to the ecclesiastical forum; but it does not treat of the nature of the ecclesiastical forum itself nor of the rights of the Church and its supreme head, the pope, to receive appeals in ecclesiastical matters Appetite - A tendency, an inclination, or direction Approbation - An act by which a bishop or other superior grants to an ecclesiastic the actual exercise of his ministry Appropriation - In theology, appropriation is used in speaking of the different Persons of the Trinity Apse - The semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or aisles of a church Apse Chapel - A chapel radiating tangentially from one of the bays or divisions of the apse, and reached generally by a semicircular passageway, or ambulatory, exteriorly to the walls or piers of the apse Aquila and Priscilla - Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome in the Jewish persecution under Claudius, 49 or 50, and settled in Corinth Aquinas, St. Thomas - Lengthy article on the life, writings, and influence of this philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church. Called the Angelic Doctor. Died in 1274 Arabia - The cradle of Islam and, in all probability, the primitive home of the Semitic race Aragon and Castile - The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon Arawaks - The first American aborigines met by Columbus Arbitration - A method of arranging differences between two parties by referring them to the judgment of a disinterested outsider whose decision the parties to a dispute agree in advance to accept as in some way binding Arca - A box in which the Eucharist was kept by the primitive Christians in their homes Arch - A structure composed of separate pieces, such as stone or bricks, having the shape of truncated wedges, arranged on a curved line so as to retain their position by mutual pressure Archæology, Christian - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments Archbishop - An archbishop or metropolitan, in the present sense of the term, is a bishop who governs a diocese strictly his own, while he presides at the same time over the bishops of a well-defined district composed of simple dioceses but not of provinces Archconfraternity - A confraternity empowered to aggregate or affiliate other confraternities of the same nature, and to impart to them its indulgences and privileges Archdeacon - The incumbent of an ecclesiastical office dating back to antiquity and up to the fifteenth century of great importance in diocesan administration, particularly in the West Archdiocese - Not an ecclesiastical province, but only that diocese of the province which is the archbishop's own Archeology, Christian - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments Archimandrite - In the Greek Rite the superior of a monastery or of several monasteries Architecture, Ecclesiastical - All ecclesiastical architecture may be said to have been evolved from two distinct germ-cells, the oblong and the circular chamber Architecture, Gothic - History of the style Archives, Ecclesiastical - A collection of documents, records, and memorials, pertaining to the origin, foundation, growth, history, and constitutions of a diocese, parish, monastery, or religious community under the jurisdiction of the Church Archpriest - Since the fourth century numerous dioceses had an archpriest, or head of the college of presbyters, who aided and represented the bishop in the discharge of his liturgical and religious duties Archpriest Controversy - Arose in England on the appointment of George Blackwell as archpriest with jurisdiction over the secular clergy of England and Scotland, by the Holy See on 7 March, 1598 Arianism - Founded by Arius, belief asserting that Christ was not God like the Father, but a creature made in time. Rejected by the Council of Constantinople (381) Aristides - A Christian apologist living at Athens in the second century Aristotle - Philosopher, born at Stagira, a Grecian colony in the Thracian peninsula Chalcidice, 384 B.C.; died at Chalcis, in Euboea, 322 B.C Arius - An heresiarch, born about A.D. 250; died 336 Ark, Noah's - The form, very likely foursquare, was not convenient for navigation, but, as has been proven by the experiments of Peter Jansen and M. Vogt, it made the Ark a very suitable device for shipping heavy cargoes and floating upon the waves without rolling or pitching Ark of the Covenant - A kind of chest, measuring two cubits and a half in length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height Armada, The Spanish - A fleet intended to invade England and to put an end to the long series of English aggressions against the colonies and possessions of the Spanish Crown Armagh - Archdiocese founded by St. Patrick about 445, as the primatial and metropolitan see of Ireland Armenia - A mountainous region of Western Asia occupying a somewhat indefinite area to the southeast of the Black Sea Arminianism - The popular designation of the doctrines held by a party formed in the early days of the seventeenth century among the Calvinists of the Netherlands Arnulf of Metz, Saint - Frankish civil servant at the court of Austrasia, bishop of Metz, hermit, d. about 640 Art, Christian - Also called ecclesiastical art Art, Ecclesiastical - Article explores the origin, history, and types Articles of Faith - Certain revealed supernatural truths such as those contained in the symbol of the Apostles Arts, The Seven Liberal - Chiefly used during the Middle Ages. Doesn't mean arts as the word is understood today, but those branches of knowledge which were taught in the schools of that time Ascension - The elevation of Christ into heaven by His own power in presence of His disciples the fortieth day after His Resurrection Ascension, Feast of the - The fortieth day after Easter Sunday, commemorating the Ascension of Christ into heaven, according to Mark 16:19, Luke 24:51, and Acts 1:2 Ascetical Theology - Briefly defined as the scientific exposition of Christian asceticism Asceticism - The word asceticism comes from the Greek askesis which means practice, bodily exercise, and more especially, atheletic training Aseity - The property by which a being exists of and from itself Ash Wednesday - The Wednesday after Quinquagesima Sunday, which is the first day of the Lenten fast Ashes - A number of passages in the Old Testament connect ashes with mourning Asia - Article intended to give a rapid survey of the geography, ethnography, political and religious history of Asia, and especially of the rise, progress, and actual condition of Asiatic Christianity and Catholicism Asia Minor - The peninsular mass that the Asiatic continent projects westward of an imaginary line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta (Issus) on the Mediterranean to the vicinity of Trebizond (Trapezus) on the Black Sea Asmodeus - Demon mentioned in the Book of Tobias Asperges - The rite of sprinkling the congregation with holy water before the principal Mass on Sunday Ass, The, in Caricature of Christians - The calumny of onolatry, or ass-worship, attributed by Tacitus and other writers to the Jews, was afterwards, by the hatred of the latter, transferred to the Christians Assemblies of the French Clergy - Meetings of the Clergy of France for the purpose of apportioning the financial burdens laid upon the Church by the kings of France, and incidentally for other ecclesiastical purposes Asses, Feast of - The feast dates from the eleventh century, though the source which suggested it is much older Assideans - The maintainers of the Mosaic Law against the invasion of Greek customs Assisi - Diocese in Umbria Assumption of Mary - The principal feast of the Blessed Virgin Assyria - Includes geographical and historical information Assyrian Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar who have separated from them Astrology - The supposed science which determines the influence of the stars, especially of the five older planets, on the fate of man Astronomy - Divided into two main branches, astrometry and astrophysics; the former concerned with determining the places of the investigation of the heavenly bodies, the latter, with the investigation of their chemical and physical nature Astronomy in the Bible - Includes examples of Old and New Testament references Atavism - Duchesne introduced the word to designate those cases in which species revert spontaneously to what are presumably long-lost characters Athanasian Creed, The - One of the symbols of the Faith approved by the Church and given a place in her liturgy Athanasius, Saint - Long article on the Bishop of Alexandria, confessor and Doctor of the Church Atheism - That system of thought which is formally opposed to theism Athenagoras - A Christian apologist of the second half of the second century of whom no more is known than that he was an Athenian philosopher and a convert to Christianity Athens, Christian - History of the Church in Athens Athos, Mount - The mountain that the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring Atom - Primarily, the smallest particle of matter which can exist Atomism - The system of those who hold that all bodies are composed of minute, indivisible particles of matter called atoms Atonement, Day of - A most solemn fast, on which no food could be taken throughout the day, and servile works were forbidden Atonement, Doctrine of the - In Catholic theology, the Atonement is the Satisfaction of Christ, whereby God and the world are reconciled or made to be at one Attila the Hun - Life and times of the legendary king Attributes, Divine - In order to form a more systematic idea of God, and as far as possible, to unfold the implications of the truth, God is All-Perfect, this infinite Perfection is viewed, successively, under various aspects, each of which is treated as a separate perfection and characteristic inherent to the Divine Substance, or Essence. A certain group of these, of paramount import, is called the Divine Attributes Attrition - Also called 'imperfect contrition.' Definition, its relation to sacramental penance, and moral considerations Audiences, Pontifical - The receptions given by the pope to cardinals, sovereigns, princes, ambassadors, and other persons, ecclesiastical or lay, having business with or interest in the Holy See Augustine, Rule of Saint - Names the five documents sometimes identified as the Rule of Augustine, quickly narrows the field to two contenders, settles on Letter 211. Also deals with Augustine's relation to monasticism Augustine of Canterbury, Saint - Biographical article on the monk who was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, called 'Apostle of the English.' Augustine of Hippo, Saint - Biography, with extensive hyperlinks to related articles Augustine of Hippo, Teaching of Saint - Article on Augustine as a Doctor of the Church, and his influence in the history of philosophy and theology. Particular interest in his teaching on grace Augustine of Hippo, Works of Saint - Annotated bibliography of Augustine's principal writings Augustinian Canons - According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric Augustinians - A religious order which in the thirteenth century combined several monastic societies into one, under this name Augustus - The name by which Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born, is usually known; born at Rome, 62 B.C.; died A.D. 14 Aurelian - Roman Emperor, 270-275, born near Sirmium in Pannonia, 9 September, 214; died 275 Aurelius Antoninus, Marcus - Second-century Roman emperor and philosopher Australia - Includes history, education, and religious statistics Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, The - The European monarchy whose dominions have for their main life-distributing artery the River Danube, in its course from Engelhartszell, near Passau, to Orsova. South of the Danube lie the Austrian Alpine provinces and the provinces of Carinthia and Carnola; north of the Danube are the Carpathian and Sudetic provinces Authentic - The term is used in two senses. It is applied first to a book or document whose contents are invested with a special authority, in virtue of which the work is called authentic. In its second sense it is used as a synonym for 'genuine', and therefore means that a work really emanates from the author to whom it is ascribed Authenticity of the Bible - The authority of Holy Writ is twofold on account of its twofold authorship: human authors and divine inspiration Authority, Civil - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members Authorized Version, The - Historical background on the AV, also called the King James Bible Autocephali - A designation in early Christian times of certain bishops who were subject to no patriarch or metropolitan, but depended directly on the triennial provincial synod or on the Apostolic See Auxiliary Bishop - A bishop deputed to a diocesan who, capable of governing and administering his diocese, is unable to perform the pontifical functions; or whose diocese is so extensive that it requires the labors of more than one; or whose episcopal see has attached to it a royal or imperial office requiring protracted presence at court Avarice - The inordinate love for riches Avatar - The word is used, in a technical sense, in the Hindu religion to denote the descent upon earth of a portion of the essence of a god, which then assumes some coarser material form, be it animal, monster, or man Ave Maria - Analysis of the prayer Ave Maria: origins and development Ave Maris Stella - The first verse of an unrhymed, accentual hymn, of seven strophes of four lines each, assigned in Roman Breviary to Vespers in the Common office, the Office of Saturdays, and the Little Office (as well as for Feasts) of the Blessed Virgin Averroes - Arabian philosopher, astronomer, and writer on jurisprudence; born at Cordova, 1126; died at Morocco, 1198 Avesta, The - The sacred books of Parsees, or Zoroastrians, and the main source of our knowledge concerning the religious and spiritual life the ancient Persians Avicenna - Arabian physician and philosopher, born at Kharmaithen, in the province of Bokhara, 980; died at Hamadan, in Northern Persia, 1037 Avignon - Written in the form of Avennio in the ancient texts and inscriptions, takes its name from the House, or Clan, Avennius Avignon, Councils of - Details of several councils held here Axum - A titular metropolitan see of ancient Christian Ethiopia Ayllón, Lucas Vésquez de - This Spanish discoverer of Chesapeake Bay, and the first who tried to find a northwest passage from Europe to Asia, date of birth uncertain; died 18 October, 1526 Azores - An archipelago situated in that tract of the Atlantic Ocean which is known to mariners as the Sargasso Sea Aztecs - A surname applied to the tribe of the Mexica, or Chichimeca Mexitin, which occupied aboriginal Mexico, in more or less contiguous groups, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the Spaniards first came into contact with them Azymes - Unfermented cakes used by the Jews in their various sacrifices and religious rites